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    Germany Government 1998

      Country name
      conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
      conventional short form: Germany
      local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
      local short form: Deutschland

      Data code GM

      Government type federal republic

      National capital Berlin
      note: the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of years, with Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several ministries even after parliament moves in 1999

      Administrative divisions 16 states (laender, singular - land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen

      Independence 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four power rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991

      National holiday German Unity Day (Day of Unity), 3 October (1990)

      Constitution 23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united German people 3 October 1990

      Legal system civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

      Suffrage 18 years of age; universal

      Executive branch
      chief of state: President Roman HERZOG (since 1 July 1994)
      head of government: Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982)
      cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the proposal of the chancellor
      elections: president elected by the Federal Convention including members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of members elected by the Land Parliaments for a five-year term; election last held 23 May 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; election last held 16 October 1994 (next to be held 27 September 1998)
      election results: Roman HERZOG elected president; percent of Federal Convention vote - NA; Dr. Helmut KOHL reelected chancellor; percent of Federal Assembly - NA

      Legislative branch bicameral chamber (no official name for the two chambers as a whole) consists of the Federal Assembly or Bundestag (656 seats usually, but 672 for the 1994 term; elected by direct popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain representation; members serve four-year terms) and the Federal Council or Bundesrat (68 votes; state governments are directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on population and are required to vote as a block; term is not fixed)
      elections: Federal Assembly - last held 16 October 1994 (next to be held by 27 September 1998); Federal Council - last held NA (next to be held NA)
      election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - CDU 34.2%, SPD 36.4%, Alliance 90/Greens 7.3%, CSU 7.3%, FDP 6.9%, PDS 4.4%, Republicans 1.9%; seats by party - CDU 244, SPD 252, Alliance 90/Greens 49, CSU 50, FDP 47, PDS 30; note - one Greens member defected to the CDU making the seat count CDU 245, Alliance 90/Greens 48; Federal Council - current composition - votes by party - SPD-led states 41, CDU-led states 27

      Judicial branch Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht, half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat

      Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Helmut KOHL, chairman]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Theodor WAIGEL, chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Wolfgang GERHARDT, chairman]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Oskar LAFONTAINE, chairman]; Alliance '90/Greens [Christa NICKELS]; Party of Democratic Socialism or PDS [Lothar BISKY, chairman]; Republikaner [Rolf SCHLIERER, chairman]; National Democratic Party or NPD [Gunter DECKERT]; Communist Party or DKP [Rolf PRIEMER and Heinz STEHR, cochairpersons]

      Political pressure groups and leaders employers' organizations, expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups

      International organization participation AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINUGUA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNOMIG, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

      Diplomatic representation in the US
      chief of mission: Ambassador Juergen CHROBOG
      chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
      telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
      FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
      consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Seattle

      Diplomatic representation from the US
      chief of mission: Ambassador John C. KORNBLUM
      embassy: Deichmanns Aue 29, 53170 Bonn
      mailing address: APO AE 09080, PSC 117, Bonn
      telephone: [49] (228) 3391
      FAX: [49] (228) 339-2663
      branch office: Berlin
      consulate(s) general: Dusseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich

      Flag description three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold

      NOTE: The information regarding Germany on this page is re-published from the 1998 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Germany Government 1998 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Germany Government 1998 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 21-Dec-01
    Copyright © 2001 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)