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    Colombia Geography - 2002

      Location Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama

      Geographic coordinates 4 00 N, 72 00 W

      Map references South America

      total: 1,138,910 sq km
      land: 1,038,700 sq km
      note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank
      water: 100,210 sq km

      Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Montana

      Land boundaries
      total: 6,004 km
      border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km

      Coastline 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)

      Maritime claims
      continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
      territorial sea: 12 NM
      exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

      Climate tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

      Terrain flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
      highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
      note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation

      Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower

      Land use
      arable land: 2%
      other: 96% (1998 est.)
      permanent crops: 2%

      Irrigated land 8,500 sq km (1998 est.)

      Natural hazards highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts

      Environment - current issues deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

      Geography - note only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

      NOTE: The information regarding Colombia on this page is re-published from the 2002 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Colombia Geography 2002 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Colombia Geography 2002 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 30-Jan-03
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