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    Peru Geography - 2002

      Location Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

      Geographic coordinates 10 00 S, 76 00 W

      Map references South America

      total: 1,285,220 sq km
      water: 5,220 sq km
      land: 1.28 million sq km

      Area - comparative slightly smaller than Alaska

      Land boundaries
      total: 5,536 km
      border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km

      Coastline 2,414 km

      Maritime claims
      continental shelf: 200 NM
      territorial sea: 200 NM

      Climate varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

      Terrain western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
      highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

      Natural resources copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

      Land use
      arable land: 3%
      permanent crops: 0%
      other: 97% (1998 est.)

      Irrigated land 11,950 sq km (1998 est.)

      Natural hazards earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

      Environment - current issues deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

      Geography - note shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; remote Lake McIntyre is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

      NOTE: The information regarding Peru on this page is re-published from the 2002 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Peru Geography 2002 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Peru Geography 2002 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 30-Jan-03
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