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    Russia Geography - 2002
    http://www.greekorthodoxchurch.org/wfb2002/russia/russia_geography.html
    SOURCE: 2002 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

      Location Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean

      Geographic coordinates 60 00 N, 100 00 E

      Map references Asia

      Area
      total: 17,075,200 sq km
      water: 79,400 sq km
      land: 16,995,800 sq km

      Area - comparative slightly less than 1.8 times the size of the US

      Land boundaries
      total: 19,990 km
      border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 294 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,485 km, Norway 196 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Ukraine 1,576 km

      Coastline 37,653 km

      Maritime claims
      continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
      exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
      territorial sea: 12 NM

      Climate ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

      Terrain broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
      highest point: Gora El'brus 5,633 m

      Natural resources wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber
      note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources

      Land use
      arable land: 8%
      permanent crops: 0%
      other: 92% (1998 est.)

      Irrigated land 46,630 sq km (1998 est.)

      Natural hazards permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula

      Environment - current issues air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

      Geography - note largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount Elbrus is Europe's tallest peak

      NOTE: The information regarding Russia on this page is re-published from the 2002 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Russia Geography 2002 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Russia Geography 2002 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 30-Jan-03
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