Open menu Close menu Open Search Close search
Support our Sponsor

. . Flags of the World Maps of All Countries
  • 2001 INDEX
  • 2000 INDEX
  • 1999 INDEX
  • 1997 INDEX
  • 1996 INDEX
  • Country Ranks

  • Home PageCountry Index

    Iraq Economy 1998

      Economy - overview The Ba'thist regime engages in extensive central planning and management of industrial production and foreign trade while leaving some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to private enterprise. The economy has been dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s, financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran led the government to implement austerity measures and to borrow heavily and later reschedule foreign debt payments; Iraq suffered economic losses of at least $100 billion from the war. After the end of hostilities in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. Agricultural development remained hampered by labor shortages, salinization, and dislocations caused by previous land reform and collectivization programs. The industrial sector, although accorded high priority by the government, also was under financial constraints. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent international economic embargoes, and military action by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically changed the economic picture. The UN-sponsored economic embargo has reduced exports and imports and has contributed to the sharp rise in prices. The Iraqi Government has been unwilling to abide by UN resolutions so that the economic embargo could be removed. The government's policies of supporting large military and internal security forces and of allocating resources to key supporters of the regime have exacerbated shortages. Industrial and transportation facilities, which suffered severe damage, have been partially restored. At current prices, oil exports are about one-third of their prewar level because of the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 986 - the UN's oil-for-goods program - in December 1996. Shortages of spare parts continue. In accord with the oil-for-goods deal, Iraq is allowed to export $2 billion worth of oil in exchange for badly needed food and medicine. The first oil was pumped in December 1996, and the first supplies of food and medicine arrived in April 1997. Per capita output for 1995-97 and living standards are well below the 1989-90 level, but any estimates have a wide range of error.

      GDP purchasing power parity - $42.8 billion (1997 est.)

      GDP - real growth rate 0% (1997 est.)

      GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,000 (1997 est.)

      GDP - composition by sector
      agriculture: NA%
      industry: NA%
      services: NA%

      Inflation rate - consumer price index NA%

      Labor force
      total: 4.4 million (1989)
      by occupation: services 48%, agriculture 30%, industry 22%
      note: severe labor shortage; expatriate labor force was about 1,600,000 (July 1990); since then, it has declined substantially

      Unemployment rate NA%

      revenues: $NA
      expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

      Industries petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing

      Industrial production growth rate NA%

      Electricity - capacity 6.83 million kW (1996)

      Electricity - production 31.8 billion kWh (1996)

      Electricity - consumption per capita 1,362 kWh (1996 est.)

      Agriculture - products wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other fruit, cotton; cattle, sheep

      Exports $NA
      commodities: crude oil
      partners: Jordan, Turkey (1996)

      Imports $NA
      commodities: manufactures, food
      partners: France, Turkey, Jordan, Vietnam, Australia (1996)

      Debt - external very heavy relative to GDP but amount unknown (1996)

      Economic aid
      recipient: ODA, $NA

      Currency 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils

      Exchange rates Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 - 0.3109 (fixed official rate since 1982); black market rate - Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1 - 1,530 (December 1997), 3,000 (December 1995); subject to wide fluctuations

      Fiscal year calendar year

      NOTE: The information regarding Iraq on this page is re-published from the 1998 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Iraq Economy 1998 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Iraq Economy 1998 should be addressed to the CIA.

    Support Our Sponsor

    Support Our Sponsor

    Please put this page in your BOOKMARKS - - - - -
    Translations - Language Translators

    Revised 21-Dec-01
    Copyright © 2022 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)